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Global Evaluation of UNICEF’s Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Programming in Protracted Crises, 2014-2019 

The average humanitarian crisis, which requires a UN-coordinated response, lasts more than nine years. Vulnerability in such contexts increases over time, making it more difficult to protect and maintain infrastructure and development gains.


UNICEF is an internationally recognised actor in humanitarian WASH responses, having been a leading advocate for safe water initiatives from the 1960s. The organisation’s remit has widened over the years to include sanitation and hygiene initiatives aligned with good practice in WASH today. As the number and duration of protracted crises have grown in recent years, the scale of UNICEF WASH programming has expanded both geographically and financially. UNICEF has provided 32.7 million people with drinking water, 9.0 million with sanitation and 28.1 million with hygiene promotion between 2015 – 2017 alone. 

Our role

Itad conducted an evaluation of UNICEF WASH humanitarian programming in protracted crises, to support learning by generating credible evidence on quality programming, leadership and coordination, adequacy of monitoring and reporting of results, implementation capacity, and on the transition between humanitarian and development programming. The evaluation advanced internal advocacy efforts to implement the necessary changes to systems, procedures, processes and practices to respond to future large-scale complex emergencies. The evaluation also contributed to organisational accountability by assessing the relevance, performance and quality of UNICEF’s work in humanitarian action in WASH. 


Contact Katharina Welle ( if you would like to discuss this project.


Image: UNICEF/2018/Moreno (Flickr). (CC BY 2.0)

Team members
Eve Mackinnon Ben Harris Joseph Thompson Chris Barnett