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Developing a theory of change for the Tripartite on Antimicrobial Resistance

Itad supported the Tripartite on Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) to develop their strategic vision through the co-creation of a theory of change (ToC) to form the core of the strategy for Tripartite collaboration for the following five years.


AMR is one of the greatest health challenges of our time. The Tripartite was established to lead and coordinate the global response to AMR in close collaboration with the UN system and other organisations. The Tripartite consolidates cooperation between the World Health Organization (WHO), Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (WOAH, founded as OIE), drawing on their core mandates and comparative advantages to address the needs of the global response across the One Health spectrum.

In 2021, the Tripartite contracted Itad to support the development of an overarching theory of change (ToC) and an accompanying results matrix to feed into their joint strategic vision for the following five years.

Our role

Our role was to facilitate the development of a ToC that fulfilled the strategic needs of the three organisations and the Tripartite as a whole to support their joint strategic vision for the following five years.

Our methods and approach

We employed a participatory process which sought to maximize the relevance and usefulness of both the process and the final ToC.

The first phase of the work entailed a detailed review of existing documentation which informed the development of a version zero of the ToC.

After the document review, we facilitated discussions with key stakeholders from the three organisations plus the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) – jointly known as ‘Tripartite Plus’ or ‘Quadripartite’ – in turn, to elicit organisational views of the causal pathways in the overarching Tripartite ToC as well as where each organisation saw itself contributing to outputs and outcomes.

We then designed and facilitated a workshop in which we worked closely with Tripartite Plus participants to refine the ToC based upon their feedback on our understanding of the causal pathways and chains, and on adaptations required to create a new version of the ToC.

Using the information gathered during the workshop as well as  feedback received by email, we developed a second draft which we refined further during a second ToC workshop.

Outcomes and impact

Once the final version or the ToC was agreed, we translated it into a visually engaging product for use by the Tripartite going forward. Itad also worked on an accompanying Results Matrix to enable progress monitoring against the ToC. The ToC will support cross-organisational collaboration and both internal and external communication on agreed priorities, enabling the Tripartite to better drive the Global Action Plan on AMR, and lead the global response against AMR.

Team members
Giada Tu Thanh Jon Cooper