Skip to content


Evaluation of Unitaid’s Antiretroviral Therapy Optimization portfolio

We evaluated Unitaid's Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Optimization portfolio’s impact on lowering barriers to antiretroviral access in low- and middle-income countries and enabling the conditions for scale-up and sustainability.


Unitaid has invested more than US$124 million across 24 countries to help meet fast-track antiretroviral targets set by UNAIDS. Their ‘ART Optimization’ portfolio seeks to scale up access to optimal HIV treatments, ensuring more people, including the most vulnerable in society, receive better treatment for HIV.

Our role

We have been commissioned to evaluate the ART Optimization portfolio’s implementation between 2016 and 2022. We will generate actional recommendations to support its implementation during 2023-2027 strategy cycle.

Through this, we are supporting Unitaid to step back and understand the contribution of its work to increasing access to optimal first and second-line treatment in adults and children in LMICs, lowering access barriers and supporting global and country scale-up.

Our evaluation provides actionable recommendations that will support the implementation of Unitaid’s new strategy and investments in the ART Optimisation space.

Methods and approaches

This mix-method evaluation adopted a bricolage of evaluation methods (Theory-based; Contribution Analysis) to answer 17 Evaluation Questions around the portfolio’s relevance, coherence, efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability.

The evaluation was theory-based, building from co-created ToCs which explained how change was supposed to happen and provided a framework for understanding the contribution of Unitaid and their community engagement approach to the achievement of 95-95-95 Fast-Track targets.